The Emergence of Quarks/Anti-Quarks

Particle Physics


  • Naohiro Ozawa ‎1-8-27, Sakuraoka, Tyuuou-ku, Saitama City, Saitama-kenn, 338-0005, Japan



Formation of quarks/anti-quarks, Vacuum phase transition, Electric charges, The structure of ‎quarks-Black-holes


In clarifying the entirety of the universe, the most important processes are the emergence of the universe and the ‎formation of quarks/anti-quarks. The entirety of the universe has emerged in a causal and consecutive manner. ‎According to the Standard Model, from the dawn of the universe, particles such as 3 pairs of neutrinos (v_µ ⁄ v ̅_µ , ‎v_e ⁄ v ̅_e , v_τ ⁄ v ̅_τ ) and 6 pairs of quarks (U/U ̅,d/d ̅ , s/s ̅ , c/c ̅ , b/b ̅ , t/t ̅ ) suddenly emerged with different ‎components not due to causality but due to "vacuum phase transitions" with no space existing in the universe. In ‎this research paper, we must first assume that quarks/anti-quarks are formed inextricably linked with the ‎organization of space-time/anti-space-time and in cooperation with 2 pairs of neutrinos (v_µ ⁄ v ̅_µ , v_e ⁄ v ̅_e ) in ‎the acting of the "strong interaction" and "weak interaction." We must also assume that quarks/anti-quarks are the ‎main body that composes the π- on group ( π^+, π^-, π^±, π^0 ) and the nucleon group ( P, P ̅, n , n ̅ ), and ‎that they play the leading role to compose not only 120 types of atomic nuclei, but also all the ‎particles/antiparticles that exist in the entire universe. In other words, the formed quarks/anti-quarks must clear any ‎and all problems in the above series without any contradictions. This research paper will make clear details such as ‎the fact that only 2 pairs of quarks (U/U ̅ , d ⁄ d ̅ ), were formed; that in the entirety of the universe, only these 2 ‎pairs of quarks were given electrical charges; and that the raw materials of space-time/anti-space-time are the same ‎as quarks/anti-quarks.‎


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Author Biography

Naohiro Ozawa, ‎1-8-27, Sakuraoka, Tyuuou-ku, Saitama City, Saitama-kenn, 338-0005, Japan

Naohiro Ozawa

1-8-27, Sakuraoka, Tyuuou-ku, Saitama City, Saitama-kenn, 338-0005, Japan


‎[1]‎ R. M. Barnett, H. Mühry, and H. R. Quinn, The ‎Charm of Strange Quarks: Mysteries and Revolutions ‎of Particle Physics. Springer Science & Business ‎Media, 2013.‎

‎[2]‎ B. Povh, K. Rith, C. Scholz, F. Zetsche, and W. ‎Rodejohann, Teilchen und Kerne: eine Einführung in ‎die physikalischen Konzepte. Springer-Verlag, 2013.‎



How to Cite

Ozawa, N. (2022). The Emergence of Quarks/Anti-Quarks: Particle Physics. Hyperscience International Journal, 2(3), 83–88.