Interaction of Underground Cavities with Stabilized Urban Excavation by Nailing and Anchorage

Geological Sciences


  • Rahman Sharifi * Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Department, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Tehran Province, AREEO, Tehran,Iran
  • Farshid Yazdanfar Department of Civil Engineer, Islamic Azad University Semnan Beranch, Semnan, Iran
  • Kheirollah Noroozi Soil Conservation Department , Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, AREEO, Tehran, Iran



Nailing, Anchorage, Cavity, Interaction


One of the most important geotechnical issues is the stabilization and deep excavation of the city, which many research has been done about it., especially in recent decades. One thing that adds to the complexity and challenge of such projects is the existence of cavities and empty spaces in the vicinity of the excavation. Therefore, careful study and in-depth analysis play a crucial role in such projects. In this research, we try to examine this issue from different aspects and its practical result use in future projects. Due to the fact that the two methods of anchorage and nailing are the most widely used methods in strengthening and stabilizing the excavations, these two methods were selected also interaction of excavation-underground cavities were investigated. parameters such as the cavity depth, the distance of the cavity from the excavation, the diameter of the cavity, and the thickness of the cavity cover, have been investigated in this research. In this research, for analysis and modeling, PLAXIS 2D finite element software has been used with the assumption of plain strain and hardening soil model which is suitable for drilling. The results of the analysis showed that the horizontal displacement of the excavation increases due to the presence of cavities and the sensitivity of the cavities stabilized with the anchorage method is greater than the nailing method. The greatest effect of the cavity on the behavior of excavation, on the one hand, is special critical distances and depths. Studies have also shown that the field of soil deformation changes despite the cavity, but it will not have a significant effect on the forces created in consolidating elements. On the other hand, drilling operations near cavities can lead to changes in the internal stresses of the cavity covering elements that must be considered in the design.


Download data is not yet available.


Mroueh, H. and I. Shahrour, Three‐dimensional finite element analysis of the interaction between tunneling and pile foundations. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 2002. 26(3): p. 217-230.

Parvari, M. Azadi, M., Parametric study of the effect of twin tunnel drilling on how to change the internal forces of adjacent piles, 4th International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering and Soil Mechanics, Tehran. IGS, (In Persian)

Basile, F., Effects of tunnelling on pile foundations. Soils and Foundations, 2014. 54(3): p. 280-295.

Hong, Y., M. Soomro, and C. Ng, Settlement and load transfer mechanism of pile group due to side-by-side twin tunnelling. Computers and Geotechnics, 2015. 64: p. 105-119.

Netzel, H. and F. Kaalberg. Numerical damage risk assessment studies on adjacent buildings in Amsterdam. in ISRM International Symposium. 2000. International Society for Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

Chiang KH, Lee CJ. Responses of single piles to tunneling-induced soil movements in sandy ground. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. 2007 Oct;44(10):1224-41.

Pang CH. The effects of tunnel construction on nearby pile foundation. Singapore: National University of Singapore. 2006.

Yang M, Sun Q, Li WC, Ma K. Three-dimensional finite element analysis on effects of tunnel construction on nearby pile foundation. Journal of Central South University of Technology. 2011 Jun 1;18(3):909.

Chen, R., et al., Influence of a nearby large excavation on existing metro in soft soils. Japanese Geotechnical Society Special Publication, 2016. 2(44): p. 1567-1572.

Zheng G, Du Y, Cheng X, Diao Y, Deng X, Wang F. Characteristics and prediction methods for tunnel deformations induced by excavations. Geomechanics and Engineering. 2017 Mar 1;12(3):361-97.

Seyedyasin, J. and M.A.L. Neshaei, THE INTERACTION BETWEEN AN URBAN TUNNEL AND AN EXCAVATION SOIL NAILED WALL. International Journal of Management and Applied Science, 2011. 4(3).

Lazarte, C.A., et al., Soil Nail Walls Reference Manual. 2015.

Sabatini, P., D. Pass, and R.C. Bachus, Ground anchors and anchored systems. 1999, United States. Federal Highway Administration. Office of Bridge Technology.

Brinkgreve, R. B. J., W. M. Swolfs, E. Engin, D. Waterman, A. Chesaru, P. G. Bonnier, and V. Galavi. "PLAXIS 2D 2008." User manual, Plaxis bv (2008).

Alipour, A. and A. Eslami, Design adaptations in a large and deep urban excavation: Case study. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2019. 11(2): p. 389-399.



How to Cite

Sharifi *, R. ., Yazdanfar , F. ., & Noroozi, K. . (2021). Interaction of Underground Cavities with Stabilized Urban Excavation by Nailing and Anchorage: Geological Sciences. Hyperscience International Journal, 1(1), 34–43.




Most read articles by the same author(s)